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Repetition (Loops)

Loops are used for repetition of certain statements for a set number of times or according to a certain condition.

FOR loop (unconditional loop)

  • Repeat instructions for a set number of times.
  • Uses a counter (must be ordinal: integer or char)
  • Uses a start and ending value that determines repetitions.
  • Can count/move up (e.g. 1 TO 10) or down (10 DOWNTO 1).


      FOR <counter> := <start value> TO <ending value> DO

WHILE loop (conditional loop)

  • Repeats depending on a certain condition(s).
  • Repeats while a certain condition is TRUE.
  • ITC:
    • Variable tested at beginning of loop must have initial value.
    • Variable is tested at the beginning of loop.
    • Variable must change in order for loop to stop.


      WHILE <condition(s)> DO
       <change condition to stop loop>

REPEAT loop (conditional loop)

  • Repeats depending on a certain condition(s).
  • Unlike the WHILE loop the REPEAT loop tests for a condition at the end of executing certain statements rather than before.
  • Instructions in a REPEAT loop will always be executed at least once.
  • Does not need a BEGIN and END.
  • The condition(s) indicate when to stop not when to go on as with the WHILE.
  • ICT
    • Variables to be tested must be initialized before execution.
    • Variable must be changed at the end of loop to avoid an infinite loop (loop will never stop repeating)
    • Variable is tested at the end of the loop. If the statement is FALSE then the loop will be repeated again.


       <change condition to stop loop>
      UNTIL <conditions to stop>;

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