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Quoting and Bibliographies

Quoting and setting up a bibliography for a research task or PAT

It is very important to give credit to authors and one of the ways is to quote from a source and give credit to the author in a source list or bibliography.


- Do not plagiarise – in other words copying and pasting from a website and presenting it as your own words is stealing another person’s ideas!
- Mention every website, book, magazine or newspaper article used.
- When quoting from a source indicate where the information was found.
- Integrate quotes by using your own words and commenting on the quoted material.

Referencing examples:

Prensky (2005:1) notes that “[o]ne such device could be today's high-end cell phones which have the computing power of a mid-1990s personal computer”…

It can be said that “mobile devices, whether embedded in the environment or carried around by their users, are redefining the nature of public and private spaces” (Kukulska-Hulme and Traxler, 2005:3).

According to Wikipedia (2008) it is clear that m-learning “has different meanings for different communities”.

On Wikipedia (2008) the following statement is made with regards to the development of m-learning:

Over the past ten years mobile learning has grown from a minor research interest to a set of significant projects in schools, workplaces, museums, cities and rural areas around the world. The mLearning community is still fragmented, with different national perspectives, differences between academia and industry, and between the school, higher education and lifelong learning sectors.

I therefore believe…

Bibliography examples:

BOTTOMLEY, E.  2009.  Is Windows in die 7de hemel?  Beeld: 10, 30 Jul.

PRENSKY, M.   2005.  What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything!  Innovate.  June/July 2005.  p.1-8


HAT  (Odendal, F.F., red.).  1984.  Verklarende handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse taal.  Johannesburg : Perskor.  1378p.

HSRC (Human Sciences Research Council).  1994.  Annual Report.  Pretoria.  67p.

KUKULSKA-HULME, A. & TRAXLER, J.  2005.  Mobile Learning: A Handbook For Educators and Trainers.   Abingdon : Routledge.   208p.


NUNES, J.M.B. & FOWELL, S.P.  1996.  Hypermedia as an experiential learning tool: a theoretical model.  Information research, 2(1).  http://www.shef.ac.uk/~is/lecturer/ircont.html  Date of access: 8 Jan. 2009.

WIKIPEDIA.  2009.   M-learning.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_learning   Date of access: 8 Jan. 2009

SMITH, J. ( )  23 Feb. 2009.  Discussion of new technology.  E-mail to: Fourie, G.  ( ).

VAN DER MERWE, K.  2009.  Verbal communication with author.  Vanderbijlpark.  (Transcription in possession of author.)

Take note:
•    List author first
•    Followed by year of publication (current year if it is a website without a publication date)
•    Title of publication/article/book
•    Publisher (if it is a book – usually city followed by colon and publisher name)
•    Website address (if applicable)
•    Amount of pages (if it is a book/article with page numbers)
•    Do not split the bibliography up into subdivisions (like articles, books, etc.) list all items alphabetically under one heading - bibliography.

For more information see:

- North-West University: Quoting Sources (Harvard style) - PDF document
- Harvard Reference Generator
- Wikipedia article on bibliographical citation

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